DevOps

This series is a longform version of an internal talk I gave at HumanGeo. It wasn’t recorded. If you want to witness these talks first-hand, good news – we’re hiring!

Look at you – all fancy with your consistent and easily-managed development environment. However, that’s only half of the local development puzzle. Sure, now developers can no longer use “it works on my machine” as an excuse, but all that means is they know that something runs. Without validation, your artisanal ramen may be indistinguishable from burned spaghetti. This is where unit testing and continuous integration really prove their worth.

Unit Testing

You can’t swing a dead cat without hitting a billion different Medium posts and Hacker News articles about the One True Way to do testing. Protip: there isn’t one. I prefer Test Driven Development (TDD), as it helps me design for failure as I build features. Others prefer to write tests after the fact, because it forces them to take a second pass over a chunk of functionality. All that matters is that you have and maintain tests. If you’re feeling really professional, you should make test coverage a requirement for any and all code that is intended for production. Regardless, code verification through linting and tests is a vital part of a good DevOps culture.

Getting Started

Writing a test is easy. For Python, a preferred language at HumanGeo, there exist many different test frameworks and tools. One great option is pytest. It allows you to associate test classes with your code without boilerplate. For example:

# my_code.py

def get_country(country_code):
    return COUNTRIES.get(country_code)
# test_my_code.py

import my_code

def test_get_country(): # All tests start with 'test_'
    assert my_code.get_country('DE') == 'Germany'

When executed, the following output indicates success:

=============================== test session starts ===============================
platform darwin -- Python 3.6.0, pytest-3.0.5, py-1.4.32, pluggy-0.4.0
rootdir: /private/tmp, inifile:
collected 1 items

test_code.py .

========================== 1 passed in 0.01 seconds ===============================

or failure:

=============================== test session starts ===============================
platform darwin -- Python 3.6.0, pytest-3.0.5, py-1.4.32, pluggy-0.4.0
rootdir: /private/tmp, inifile:
collected 1 items

test_code.py F

==================================== FAILURES =====================================
________________________________ test_get_country _________________________________

    def test_get_country():
>       assert my_code.get_country('DE') == 'Germany'
E       assert 'Denmark' == 'Germany'
E         - Denmark
E         + Germany

test_code.py:6: AssertionError
============================ 1 failed in 0.03 seconds =============================

The inlining of failing code frames makes it easy to pinpoint the failing assertion, thus reducing unit testing headaches and boilerplate. For more on pytest, check out Jacob Kaplan-Moss’s great introduction to the library.

Mocking

Mocking is vital part of the testing equation. I don’t mean making fun of your tests (that would be downright rude), but instead substituting fake (mock) objects in place of ones that serve as touchpoints to external code. This is nice because a good test shouldn’t care about certain implementation details - just ensure that all cases are correctly handled. This especially holds true when relying on components outside of the purview of your application, such as web services, datastores, or the filesystem.

unittest.mock is our library of choice. To see how it’s used, let’s dive into an example:

# my_code.py

def country_data_exists():
    return os.path.exists('/tmp/countries.json')
# test_my_code.py

from unittest.mock import patch
import my_code

@patch('os.path.exists')
def test_country_data_exists_success(path_exists_mock):
    path_exists_mock.return_value = True
    data_exists = my_code.country_data_exists()
    assert data_exists == True
    path_exists_mock.assert_called_once_with('/tmp/countries.json')

@patch('os.path.exists')
def test_country_data_exists_failure(path_exists_mock):
    path_exists_mock.return_value = False
    data_exists = my_code.country_data_exists()
    assert data_exists == False
    path_exists_mock.assert_called_once_with('/tmp/countries.json')

The patch function replaces the object at the provided path with a Mock object. These objects use Python magic to accept arbitrary calls and return defined values. Once the function that uses the mocked object has been invoked, we can inspect the mock and make various assertions about how it was called.

If you’re using the Requests library (which you should always do), responses allows you to intercept specific requests and return custom data:

# my_code.py

import requests

def get_flag_image(country_code):
    response = requests.get(f'http://example.com/flags/{country_code}.png')
    if not response.ok:
        raise MediaDownloadError(f'Error downloading the image: HTTP {response.status_code}:\n{response.text}')
    return response.content
# test_my_code.py

import pytest
import responses

@responses.activate # Tell responses to intercept this function's requests
def test_get_flag_image_404():
    responses.add(responses.GET, # The HTTP method to intercept
                  'http://example.com/flags/de.gif', # The URL to intercept
                  body="These aren't the gifs you're looking for", # The mocked response body
                  status=404) # The mocked response status
    with pytest.raises(my_code.MediaDownloadError) as download_error:
        my_code.get_flag_image('de')
    assert '404' in download_error.message

More information on mocking in Python can be found here.

Continuous Integration: Jenkins

Throughout this process, we’ve been trusting our developers when they say their code works locally without issue. The better approach here is to trust, but verify. From bad merges to broad refactors, a host of issues can manifest themselves during the last few phases of task development. A good DevOps culture accepts that these are inevitable and must be addressed through automation. The practice of validating the most recent version of your codebase is called Continuous Integration (CI).

For this, we will use Jenkins, a popular open source tool designed for flexible CI workflows. It has a large community that provides plugins for integration with common tools, such as GitLab, Python Virtual Environments, and various test runners.

Once Jenkins has access to your GitLab instance, it can:

  1. Poll for merge requests targeting the main development branch;

    Jenkins polling for MR screenshot

  2. Attempt a merge of the feature branch into the trunk;

    Jenkins MR detection screenshot

  3. Run your linter;

    Jenkins lint command screenshot

    • Define your acceptable lint severity thresholds

      Jenkins polling for MR screenshot

  4. Run unit tests; and

    Jenkins unit test screenshot

  5. If any of the above steps result in a failure state, Jenkins will comment on the MR. Otherwise, the build is good, and the MR is given the green light.

By integrating Jenkins CI with GitLab merge requests, low quality code can be detected and addressed before it enters your main branch. Newer versions of Jenkins even provide for defining your CI workflow as a file hosted within your repository. This way, your pipeline always corresponds to your codebase. GitLab has also launched a CI capability that may also fit your needs.


This concludes the continuous integration portion of our dive into DevOps. In the next installment, we’ll cover deployment!

Questions or comments? Shoot me a tweet at @IAmAru.

DevOps lifecycle image By Kharnagy (Own work) CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons